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Elementary Logic: Logical Arguments, Uses of Language, Definition and Meaning Fallacies of Relevance, Presumption, and Ambiguity, Categorical Propositions and Immediate Inferences, Categorical Syllogisms and Their Validity, Syllogisms in Ordinary Language, Logical Symbols expressing Argument Form and Statement Form, Rules of Inference and Replacement to prove Validity or Invalidity, Basics of Quantification Theory, Analogical Inferences, Causal Reasoning, Scientific Explanation, and Probability Theory.  This discussion is based on: K. Codell Carter A First Course in Logic (Pearson Longman, 2003) Copi and Cohen Introduction to Logic 11th Ed. (PrenticeHall, 2001) Richard W. Miller Introduction to Logic Study Guide (Prentice Hall, 1997) 
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